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Test ID: PINW Pinworm Exam, Perianal

Reporting Name

Pinworm Exam, Perianal

Useful For

Detection of the eggs of Enterobius vermicularis on the skin of the perianal folds

Specimen Type

Varies


Specimen Required


Supplies: Swubes (T300)

Specimen Type: Perianal

Container/Tube: SWUBE disposable paddle (Falcon) or similar method of collection

Specimen Volume: Entire specimen

Collection Instructions: See Pinworm Collection Instructions in Special Instructions.


Specimen Stability Information

Specimen Type Temperature Time Special Container
Varies Ambient (preferred) 7 days
  Refrigerated  7 days

Special Instructions

Reference Values

Negative (reported as positive or negative)

Day(s) and Time(s) Performed

Monday through Friday; Varies

Test Classification

This test has been cleared, approved or is exempt by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and is used per manufacturer's instructions. Performance characteristics were verified by Mayo Clinic in a manner consistent with CLIA requirements.

CPT Code Information

87172

LOINC Code Information

Test ID Test Order Name Order LOINC Value
PINW Pinworm Exam, Perianal 675-9

 

Result ID Test Result Name Result LOINC Value
PINW Pinworm Exam, Perianal 675-9

Clinical Information

Enterobius vermicularis, also known as pinworm, is a common intestinal nematode with a worldwide distribution. In the United States, pinworm infection is the most common helminth infection of humans and is most frequently found in young school-age children. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route. Individuals become infected when inadvertently ingesting pinworm eggs from the environment (eg, contaminated objects and surfaces). The eggs then hatch in the small intestine and the adults reside in the lumen of the cecum. Gravid adult females migrate to the perianal area during the night and deposit large numbers of eggs in the perianal area, using a glue-like substance to promote adherence anal skin folds.

 

Most infections are asymptomatic. When present, the most common symptom is nocturnal pruritus ani (nightly anal itching) from the host inflammatory reaction to the eggs and associated adhesion. With itching, the eggs contaminate the fingers of the host and then spread into the environment to infect others. Autoinoculation is also common. Heavy infections may be associated with irritability, difficulty sleeping, abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Ectopic migration of the adult female worm may also lead to vulvovaginitis, salpingo-oophoritis, peritonitis, and, possibly, appendicitis.

 

Pinworm infection is best diagnosed through identification of eggs, and occasionally adults, obtained from the perianal skin folds. This is classically accomplished via collection with clear adhesive cellophane tape. The pinworm paddle (eg, Swube device) facilitates this collection and is provides a safer and more reliable means of collection and examination. To collect eggs with the pinworm paddle, the adhesive side of the paddle is pressed firmly and repeatedly to the perianal region and then returned to its plastic tube for safe transportation to the laboratory. The specimen should be collected first thing in the morning, before the patient bathes or defecates. When the paddle arrives in the laboratory, it is placed on a glass slide and examined using a light microscope for eggs and adult worms. Care must be taken when collecting and examining the specimen, as pinworm eggs are infectious within 4 to 6 hours of being laid. Repeat testing may be recommended to increase the sensitivity of detection in cases of light infection.

 

Several agents are effective in treating pinworm infection (pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole), and good personal hygiene will prevent transmission of the eggs.

Interpretation

Positive results are provided indicating the presence of eggs of Enterobius vermicularis.

Clinical Reference

1. Global Health, Division of Parasitic Diseases: Parasites-Enterobiasis (also known as Pinworm Infection). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; January 10, 2013. Accessed August 18, 2020. Available at  www.cdc.gov/parasites/pinworm/index.html

2. Mayo Clinic: Pinworm infection. Mayo Clinic; June 16, 2020 Accessed August 18, 2020. Available at www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/pinworm/symptoms-causes/syc-20376382

Analytic Time

1 day

Method Name

Microscopic

Mayo Clinic Laboratories | Gastroenterology Catalog Additional Information:

mml-gi-id, mml-gi-intestinal-infections, mml-gi-intestinal-infections-pathogens